Crop Protection Product Safety Summaries

Pesticides undergo comprehensive safety assessments by regulatory authorities, such as the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), as well as independent researchers and other experts around the world, such as the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).

Before companies can make pesticides available to farmers, these crop protection tools must undergo comprehensive evaluations by regulatory authorities. Several agencies require pesticides to undergo more than 100 safety studies before they are approved.

Even after regulatory authorities approve a pesticide for use, they continue to consider new information to assess the safety of registered products. And no pesticide’s regulatory approval is permanent. For instance, in the U.S., the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) routinely reviews registered products to determine if they should be renewed.

Below, you can see a list of the active ingredients for Monsanto’s chemistry products. For each ingredient, there are links to the key scientific publications and data summaries that address regulatory requirements and support the conclusions of the risk assessments of product registrations around the world. This information is a summary of what is reviewed by regulatory agencies throughout the world.

In addition to these publications, links to regulatory decision documents for each ingredient which walk through the decision process of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Canadian Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA), European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) and others are available for review as well.

Glyphosate

Over more than four decades, glyphosate has undergone extensive testing and assessment to evaluate its safety for a wide range of herbicidal uses. Six complete data sets exist to support government reviews alongside thousands of publications in the peer-reviewed literature.Much of the information addressing short term and long term toxicity, carcinogenicity, effects on wildlife and environmental fate has been summarized in a collection of publications. Taken together, the data support a conclusion that glyphosate exhibits low toxicity, is not a carcinogen, does not accumulate in the food chain, and all approved uses are safe for humans and the environment. This robust safety profile is a primary reason why glyphosate has become one of the most widely used herbicides around the world. The documents below provide assessments of glyphosate’s safety for humans and the environment from government agencies, authoritative bodies, and open access, peer-reviewed publications.

Glyphosate Safety Summaries
Human health assessments by government agencies or other authoritative bodies

European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Conclusion on the Peer Review of the Pesticide Risk Assessment of the Active Substance Glyphosate. November 2015. http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/pub/4302

Japan Food Safety Commission (FSC). Risk Assessment Report: Pesticides, Glyphosate April 2016. http://www.fsc.go.jp/iken-bosyu/pc3_no_glyphosate_280406.data/pc3_no_glyphosate_280406.pdf

Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR). Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues, Summary Report. May 2016. http://www.who.int/foodsafety/jmprsummary2016.pdf?ua=1

European Chemicals Agency (ECHA). Proposal for Harmonized Classification and Labelling, Substance Name: N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine; Glyphosate (ISO). May 2016. https://echa.europa.eu/documents/10162/13626/clh_report_glyphosate_en.pdf

New Zealand Environmental Protection Authority (NZ EPA). Review of the Evidence Relating to Glyphosate and Carcinogenicity. August 2016. http://www.epa.govt.nz/Publications/EPA_glyphosate_review.pdf

Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority (APVMA). Regulatory Position: Consideration of the Evidence for a Formal Reconsideration of Glyphosate. October 2016. http://apvma.gov.au/sites/default/files/publication/20701-glyphosate-regulatory-position-report-final.pdf

Canadian Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA). Re-evaluation Decision RVD2017-01, Glyphosate. April 2017. https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/consumer-product-safety/reports-publications/pesticides-pest-management/decisions-updates/registration-decision/2017/glyphosate-rvd-2017-01.html

United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Revised Glyphosate Issue Paper: Evaluation of Carcinogenic Potential. December 2017. https://www.regulations.gov/document?D=EPA-HQ-OPP-2009-0361-0073

United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Glyphosate Draft Human Health Risk Assessment for Registration Review. December 2017. https://www.regulations.gov/document?D=EPA-HQ-OPP-2009-0361-0068

Environmental assessments by government agencies or other authoritative bodies

United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Preliminary Ecological Risk Assessment for Glyphosate and its Salts. September 2015. https://www.regulations.gov/document?D=EPA-HQ-OPP-2009-0361-0077

Canadian Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA). Re-evaluation Decision RVD2017-01, Glyphosate. April 2017. https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/consumer-product-safety/reports-publications/pesticides-pest-management/decisions-updates/registration-decision/2017/glyphosate-rvd-2017-01.html

Human health data from peer-reviewed, open access scientific journals

Acquavella, J., D. Garabrant, G. Marsh, T. Sorahan, D.L. Weed. 2016. Glyphosate epidemiology expert panel review: a weight of evidence systematic review of the relationship between glyphosate exposure and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma or multiple myeloma. Critical Reviews in Toxicology. 46, Issue Supplement 1:28-43. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10408444.2016.1214681

Andreotti, G., S. Koutros, J.N. Hofmann, D.P. Sandler, J.H. Lubin, C.F. Lynch, C.C. Lerro, A.J. De Roos, C.G. Parks, M.C. Alavanja, D.T. Silverman, L.E. Beane Freeman. Glyphosate use and cancer incidence in the Agricultural Health Study. 2017. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djx233

Brusick, D, M. Aardema, L. Kier, D. Kirkland, G. Williams. 2016. Genotoxicity Expert Panel review: weight of evidence evaluation of the genotoxicity of glyphosate, glyphosate-based formulations, and aminomethylphosphonic acid. Critical Reviews in Toxicology. 46, Issue Supplement 1:56-74. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10408444.2016.1214680

Ehling, S., Reddy, T.M. 2015. Analysis of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid in nutritional ingredients and milk by derivatization with fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl chloride and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. https://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/acs.jafc.5b04453

Greim, H., D. Saltmiras, V. Mostert, C. Strupp. 2015. Evaluation of carcinogenic potential of the herbicide glyphosate, drawing on tumor incidence data from fourteen chronic/carcinogenicity rodent studies. Critical Reviews in Toxicology. 45:185-208. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.3109/10408444.2014.1003423

Kier, L.D., D.J. Kirkland. 2013. Review of genotoxicity studies of glyphosate and glyphosate-based formulations. Critical Reviews in Toxicology. 43:283-315. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.3109/10408444.2013.770820

McClellan, R.O. 2016. Evaluating the potential carcinogenic hazard of glyphosate. Critical Reviews in Toxicology. 46, Issue Supplement 1:1-2. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10408444.2016.1234117

McGuire, M.K., M.A. McGuire, W.J. Price, B. Shafii, J.M. Carrothers, K.A. Lackey, D.A. Goldstein, P.K. Jensen, J.L. Vicini. 2016. Glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid are not detectable in human milk. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/103/5/1285/4633910

Niemann, K., C. Sieke, R. Pfeil, R. Solecki. 2015. A critical review of glyphosate findings in human urine samples and comparison with the exposure of operators and consumers. Journal für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00003-014-0927-3

Solomon, K. 2016. Glyphosate in the general population and in applicators: a critical review of studies on exposures. Critical Reviews in Toxicology. 46, Issue Supplement 1:21-27. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10408444.2016.1214678

Steinborn, A., L. Alder, B. Michalski, P. Zomer, P. Bendig, S.A. Martinez, H.G. J. Mol, T.J. Class, N.C. Pinheiro. 2016. Determination of glyphosate levels in breast milk samples from Germany by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 64:1414−1421. https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.jafc.5b05852

Williams, G.M., C. Berry, M. Burns, J.L. de Camargo, H. Greim. 2106. Glyphosate rodent carcinogenicity bioassay expert panel review. Critical Reviews in Toxicology. 46, Issue Supplement 1:44-55. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10408444.2016.1214679

Williams, G.M., M. Aardema, J. Acquavella, Sir C. Berry, D. Brusick, M.M. Burns, J.L.V. de Camargo, D. Garabrant, H.A. Greim, L.D. Kier, D.J. Kirkland, G. Marsh, K.R. Solomon, T. Sorahan, A. Roberts, D.L. Weed. 2016. A review of the carcinogenic potential of glyphosate by four independent expert panels and comparison to the IARC assessment. Critical Reviews in Toxicology. 46, Issue Supplement 1:3-20. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10408444.2016.1214677

Environmental and ecological data from peer-reviewed, open access scientific journals

Giesy, J.P., Stuart. Dobson, and Keith .R. Solomon. 2000. Ecotoxicological risk assessment for Roundup herbicide. Reviews in Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 167:35-120. http://www.usask.ca/toxicology/jgiesy/pdf/publications/JA-228.pdf

Thompson, H.M., S.L. Levine, J. Doering, S. Norman, P. Manson, P. Sutton, G. von Merey. 2014. Evaluating exposure and potential effects on honeybee brood (Apis mellifera) development using glyphosate as an example. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management. 10:463470. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4285224/

von Merey, G., P.S. Manson, A. Mehrsheikh, P. Sutton, S.L. Levine. 2016. Glyphosate and AMPA chronic risk assessment for soil biota. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 10.1002/etc.3438. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/etc.3438/epdf.

Additional publications

Glyphosate Task Force Literature Database http://www.glyphosate.eu/database/literature-database

Benefits and Safety of Glyphosate https://monsanto.com/app/uploads/2017/07/Glyphosate-benefits-and-safety_public-FINAL.pdf

[unex_ce_basic_accordion layer-name="Glyphosate Summaries" accordion_title="Glyphosate Safety Summaries" id="content_itugn2cp6" post_id="16288" semplice_styles_background_color="transparent" semplice_styles_background_image="" semplice_styles_background_size="auto" semplice_styles_background_position="50% 0%" semplice_styles_background_repeat="no-repeat" semplice_styles_padding_top="0px" semplice_styles_padding_bottom="0px" semplice_styles_padding_left="0" semplice_styles_padding_right="0"] {"1":{"title":"Human health assessments by government agencies or other authoritative bodies","content":"\u003Cp\u003EEuropean Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Conclusion on the Peer Review of the Pesticide Risk Assessment of the Active Substance Glyphosate. November 2015. \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/www.efsa.europa.eu\/en\/efsajournal\/pub\/4302\"\u003Ehttp:\/\/www.efsa.europa.eu\/en\/efsajournal\/pub\/4302\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EJapan Food Safety Commission (FSC). Risk Assessment Report: Pesticides, Glyphosate April 2016. \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/www.fsc.go.jp\/iken-bosyu\/pc3_no_glyphosate_280406.data\/pc3_no_glyphosate_280406.pdf\"\u003Ehttp:\/\/www.fsc.go.jp\/iken-bosyu\/pc3_no_glyphosate_280406.data\/pc3_no_glyphosate_280406.pdf\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EJoint FAO\/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR). Joint FAO\/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues, Summary Report. May 2016. \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/www.who.int\/foodsafety\/jmprsummary2016.pdf?ua=1\"\u003Ehttp:\/\/www.who.int\/foodsafety\/jmprsummary2016.pdf?ua=1\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EEuropean Chemicals Agency (ECHA). Proposal for Harmonized Classification and Labelling, Substance Name: N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine; Glyphosate (ISO). May 2016. \u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/echa.europa.eu\/documents\/10162\/13626\/clh_report_glyphosate_en.pdf\"\u003Ehttps:\/\/echa.europa.eu\/documents\/10162\/13626\/clh_report_glyphosate_en.pdf\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ENew Zealand Environmental Protection Authority (NZ EPA). Review of the Evidence Relating to Glyphosate and Carcinogenicity. August 2016. \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/www.epa.govt.nz\/Publications\/EPA_glyphosate_review.pdf\"\u003Ehttp:\/\/www.epa.govt.nz\/Publications\/EPA_glyphosate_review.pdf\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EAustralian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority (APVMA). Regulatory Position: Consideration of the Evidence for a Formal Reconsideration of Glyphosate. October 2016. \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/apvma.gov.au\/sites\/default\/files\/publication\/20701-glyphosate-regulatory-position-report-final.pdf\"\u003Ehttp:\/\/apvma.gov.au\/sites\/default\/files\/publication\/20701-glyphosate-regulatory-position-report-final.pdf\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ECanadian Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA). Re-evaluation Decision RVD2017-01, Glyphosate. April 2017. \u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/www.canada.ca\/en\/health-canada\/services\/consumer-product-safety\/reports-publications\/pesticides-pest-management\/decisions-updates\/registration-decision\/2017\/glyphosate-rvd-2017-01.html\"\u003Ehttps:\/\/www.canada.ca\/en\/health-canada\/services\/consumer-product-safety\/reports-publications\/pesticides-pest-management\/decisions-updates\/registration-decision\/2017\/glyphosate-rvd-2017-01.html\u003C\/a\u003E \u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EUnited States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Revised Glyphosate Issue Paper: Evaluation of Carcinogenic Potential. December 2017. \u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/www.regulations.gov\/document?D=EPA-HQ-OPP-2009-0361-0073\"\u003Ehttps:\/\/www.regulations.gov\/document?D=EPA-HQ-OPP-2009-0361-0073\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EUnited States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Glyphosate Draft Human Health Risk Assessment for Registration Review. December 2017. \u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/www.regulations.gov\/document?D=EPA-HQ-OPP-2009-0361-0068\"\u003Ehttps:\/\/www.regulations.gov\/document?D=EPA-HQ-OPP-2009-0361-0068\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n"},"2":{"title":"Environmental assessments by government agencies or other authoritative bodies","content":"\u003Cp\u003EUnited States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Preliminary Ecological Risk Assessment for Glyphosate and its Salts. September 2015. \u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/www.regulations.gov\/document?D=EPA-HQ-OPP-2009-0361-0077\"\u003Ehttps:\/\/www.regulations.gov\/document?D=EPA-HQ-OPP-2009-0361-0077\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ECanadian Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA). Re-evaluation Decision RVD2017-01, Glyphosate. April 2017. \u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/www.canada.ca\/en\/health-canada\/services\/consumer-product-safety\/reports-publications\/pesticides-pest-management\/decisions-updates\/registration-decision\/2017\/glyphosate-rvd-2017-01.html\"\u003Ehttps:\/\/www.canada.ca\/en\/health-canada\/services\/consumer-product-safety\/reports-publications\/pesticides-pest-management\/decisions-updates\/registration-decision\/2017\/glyphosate-rvd-2017-01.html\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n"},"3":{"title":"Human health data from peer-reviewed, open access scientific journals","content":"\u003Cp\u003EAcquavella, J., D. Garabrant, G. Marsh, T. Sorahan, D.L. Weed.  2016.  Glyphosate epidemiology expert panel review: a weight of evidence systematic review of the relationship between glyphosate exposure and non-Hodgkin\u2019s lymphoma or multiple myeloma.  Critical Reviews in Toxicology.  46, Issue Supplement 1:28-43.  \u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/www.tandfonline.com\/doi\/full\/10.1080\/10408444.2016.1214681\"\u003Ehttps:\/\/www.tandfonline.com\/doi\/full\/10.1080\/10408444.2016.1214681\u003C\/a\u003E  \u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EAndreotti, G.,  S. Koutros, J.N. Hofmann, D.P. Sandler, J.H. Lubin, C.F. Lynch, C.C. Lerro, A.J. De Roos, C.G. Parks, M.C. Alavanja, D.T. Silverman, L.E. Beane Freeman. Glyphosate use and cancer incidence in the Agricultural Health Study. 2017. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. \u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/doi.org\/10.1093\/jnci\/djx233\"\u003Ehttps:\/\/doi.org\/10.1093\/jnci\/djx233\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EBrusick, D, M. Aardema, L. Kier, D. Kirkland, G. Williams.  2016.  Genotoxicity Expert Panel review: weight of evidence evaluation of the genotoxicity of glyphosate, glyphosate-based formulations, and aminomethylphosphonic acid.  Critical Reviews in Toxicology.  46, Issue Supplement 1:56-74.  \u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/www.tandfonline.com\/doi\/full\/10.1080\/10408444.2016.1214680\"\u003Ehttps:\/\/www.tandfonline.com\/doi\/full\/10.1080\/10408444.2016.1214680\u003C\/a\u003E  \u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EEhling, S., Reddy, T.M.  2015.  Analysis of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid in nutritional ingredients and milk by derivatization with fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl chloride and liquid chromatography\/mass spectrometry.  Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. \u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/pubs.acs.org\/doi\/full\/10.1021\/acs.jafc.5b04453\"\u003Ehttps:\/\/pubs.acs.org\/doi\/full\/10.1021\/acs.jafc.5b04453\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EGreim, H., D. Saltmiras, V. Mostert, C. Strupp. 2015. Evaluation of carcinogenic potential of the herbicide glyphosate, drawing on tumor incidence data from fourteen chronic\/carcinogenicity rodent studies. Critical Reviews in Toxicology. 45:185-208. \u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/www.tandfonline.com\/doi\/full\/10.3109\/10408444.2014.1003423\"\u003Ehttps:\/\/www.tandfonline.com\/doi\/full\/10.3109\/10408444.2014.1003423\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EKier, L.D., D.J. Kirkland. 2013. Review of genotoxicity studies of glyphosate and glyphosate-based formulations. Critical Reviews in Toxicology. 43:283-315. \u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/www.tandfonline.com\/doi\/full\/10.3109\/10408444.2013.770820\"\u003Ehttps:\/\/www.tandfonline.com\/doi\/full\/10.3109\/10408444.2013.770820\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EMcClellan, R.O.  2016.  Evaluating the potential carcinogenic hazard of glyphosate.  Critical Reviews in Toxicology.  46, Issue Supplement 1:1-2.  \u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/www.tandfonline.com\/doi\/full\/10.1080\/10408444.2016.1234117\"\u003Ehttps:\/\/www.tandfonline.com\/doi\/full\/10.1080\/10408444.2016.1234117\u003C\/a\u003E  \u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EMcGuire, M.K., M.A. McGuire, W.J. Price, B. Shafii, J.M. Carrothers, K.A. Lackey, D.A. Goldstein, P.K. Jensen, J.L. Vicini. 2016.  Glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid are not detectable in human milk.  American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. \u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/academic.oup.com\/ajcn\/article\/103\/5\/1285\/4633910\"\u003Ehttps:\/\/academic.oup.com\/ajcn\/article\/103\/5\/1285\/4633910\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ENiemann, K., C. Sieke, R. Pfeil, R. Solecki. 2015. A critical review of glyphosate findings in human urine samples and comparison with the exposure of operators and consumers. Journal f\u00fcr Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit. \u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/link.springer.com\/article\/10.1007\/s00003-014-0927-3\"\u003Ehttps:\/\/link.springer.com\/article\/10.1007\/s00003-014-0927-3\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ESolomon, K.  2016.  Glyphosate in the general population and in applicators: a critical review of studies on exposures.  Critical Reviews in Toxicology.  46, Issue Supplement 1:21-27.  \u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/www.tandfonline.com\/doi\/full\/10.1080\/10408444.2016.1214678\"\u003Ehttps:\/\/www.tandfonline.com\/doi\/full\/10.1080\/10408444.2016.1214678\u003C\/a\u003E  \u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003ESteinborn, A., L. Alder, B. Michalski, P. Zomer, P. Bendig, S.A. Martinez, H.G. J. Mol, T.J. Class, N.C. Pinheiro.  2016.  Determination of glyphosate levels in breast milk samples from Germany by LC-MS\/MS and GC-MS\/MS.  Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 64:1414\u22121421. \u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/pubs.acs.org\/doi\/abs\/10.1021\/acs.jafc.5b05852\"\u003Ehttps:\/\/pubs.acs.org\/doi\/abs\/10.1021\/acs.jafc.5b05852\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EWilliams, G.M., C. Berry, M. Burns, J.L. de Camargo, H. Greim.  2106.  Glyphosate rodent carcinogenicity bioassay expert panel review.  Critical Reviews in Toxicology.  46, Issue Supplement 1:44-55.  \u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/www.tandfonline.com\/doi\/full\/10.1080\/10408444.2016.1214679\"\u003Ehttps:\/\/www.tandfonline.com\/doi\/full\/10.1080\/10408444.2016.1214679\u003C\/a\u003E  \u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EWilliams, G.M., M. Aardema, J. Acquavella, Sir C. Berry, D. Brusick, M.M. Burns, J.L.V. de Camargo, D. Garabrant, H.A. Greim, L.D. Kier, D.J. Kirkland, G. Marsh, K.R. Solomon, T. Sorahan, A. Roberts, D.L. Weed.  2016.  A review of the carcinogenic potential of glyphosate by four independent expert panels and comparison to the IARC assessment.  Critical Reviews in Toxicology.  46, Issue Supplement 1:3-20.  \u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/www.tandfonline.com\/doi\/full\/10.1080\/10408444.2016.1214677\"\u003Ehttps:\/\/www.tandfonline.com\/doi\/full\/10.1080\/10408444.2016.1214677\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n"},"4":{"title":"Environmental and ecological data from peer-reviewed, open access scientific journals","content":"\u003Cp\u003EGiesy, J.P., Stuart. Dobson, and Keith .R. Solomon.  2000.  Ecotoxicological risk assessment for Roundup herbicide.  Reviews in Environmental Contamination and Toxicology.  167:35-120. \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/www.usask.ca\/toxicology\/jgiesy\/pdf\/publications\/JA-228.pdf\"\u003Ehttp:\/\/www.usask.ca\/toxicology\/jgiesy\/pdf\/publications\/JA-228.pdf\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EThompson, H.M., S.L. Levine, J. Doering, S. Norman, P. Manson, P. Sutton, G. von Merey.  2014.  Evaluating exposure and potential effects on honeybee brood (Apis mellifera) development using glyphosate as an example.  Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management. 10:463470. \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov\/pmc\/articles\/PMC4285224\/\"\u003Ehttp:\/\/www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov\/pmc\/articles\/PMC4285224\/\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003Evon Merey, G., P.S. Manson, A. Mehrsheikh, P. Sutton, S.L. Levine.  2016.  Glyphosate and AMPA chronic risk assessment for soil biota.  Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry.  10.1002\/etc.3438. \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/onlinelibrary.wiley.com\/doi\/10.1002\/etc.3438\/epdf\"\u003Ehttp:\/\/onlinelibrary.wiley.com\/doi\/10.1002\/etc.3438\/epdf\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/p\u003E\n"},"5":{"title":"Additional publications","content":"\u003Cp\u003EGlyphosate Task Force Literature Database \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/www.glyphosate.eu\/database\/literature-database\"\u003Ehttp:\/\/www.glyphosate.eu\/database\/literature-database\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n\n\u003Cp\u003EBenefits and Safety of Glyphosate \u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/monsanto.com\/app\/uploads\/2017\/07\/Glyphosate-benefits-and-safety_public-FINAL.pdf\"\u003Ehttps:\/\/monsanto.com\/app\/uploads\/2017\/07\/Glyphosate-benefits-and-safety_public-FINAL.pdf\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/p\u003E\n"}} [/ce_basic_accordion]

Dicamba

Tioxazafen

Acetochlor

 

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