Biotechnology: Research & Third-Party Studies

Extensive and continued studies on GM crops have been conducted globally by both the public sector and the industry to ensure their ongoing safety. There are thousands of studies available confirming the safety of GMOs, with several hundred being completed by investigators fully independent of industry involvement. Below we have featured some of the more frequently cited third-party studies on the benefits, regulatory process, and food, feed, and environmental safety of GM crops.

Third-Party Studies
Benefits of GM Crops
Regulation of GM Crops
Food and Feed Safety of GM Crops
Environmental Safety of GM Crops
[unex_ce_basic_accordion layer-name="Layer Name" accordion_title="Third-Party Studies" id="content_twqvl828c" post_id="3255" semplice_styles_background_color="transparent" semplice_styles_background_image="" semplice_styles_background_size="auto" semplice_styles_background_position="50% 0%" semplice_styles_background_repeat="no-repeat" semplice_styles_padding_top="0px" semplice_styles_padding_bottom="0px" semplice_styles_padding_left="0" semplice_styles_padding_right="0"] [{"title":"Benefits of GM Crops","content":"\u003Cul\u003E\n\t\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"semibold\"\u003ENational Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2016)\u003C\/span\u003E \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/nas-sites.org\/ge-crops\/2016\/05\/17\/report\/\" target=\"_blank\"\u003EGenetically Engineered Crops: Experiences and Prospects\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/li\u003E\n\t\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"semibold\"\u003EISAAA. (2017).\u003C\/span\u003E \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/www.isaaa.org\/resources\/publications\/briefs\/52\/default.asp\" target=\"_blank\"\u003EISAAA Brief 52-2016.\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/li\u003E\n\t\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"semibold\"\u003EGraham Brookes, Peter Barfoot. (2017).\u003C\/span\u003E GM crops: global socio-economic and environmental impacts 1996- 2015.\u003C\/li\u003E\n\t\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"semibold\"\u003EStuart J.Smyth, William A.Kerr, Peter W.B.Phillips. (2015).\u003C\/span\u003E \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/www.sciencedirect.com\/science\/article\/pii\/S2211912415300092\" target=\"_blank\"\u003EGlobal economic,environmental and health benefits from GM crop adoption\u003C\/a\u003E.\u003C\/li\u003E\n\t\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"semibold\"\u003EWilhelm Kl\u00fcmper, Matin Qaim. (2014).\u003C\/span\u003E \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/www.plosone.org\/article\/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0111629#abstract0\" target=\"_blank\"\u003EA Meta-Analysis of the Impacts of Genetically Modified Crops.\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/li\u003E\n\t\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"semibold\"\u003ECarpenter, Janet E. (2014).\u003C\/span\u003E \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/inderscience.metapress.com\/content\/m12m251051321v66\/\" target=\"_blank\"\u003EThe socio-economic impacts of currently commercialised genetically engineered crops.\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/li\u003E\n\t\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"semibold\"\u003EJorge Fernandez-Cornejo, Seth James Wechsler, Michael Livingston, and Lorraine Mitchell. (2014).\u003C\/span\u003E \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/www.ers.usda.gov\/publications\/err-economic-research-report\/err162.aspx\" target=\"_blank\"\u003EGenetically Engineered Crops in the United States.\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/li\u003E\n\t\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"semibold\"\u003EA. M. SHELTON, D. L. OLMSTEAD, E. C. BURKNESS,  W. D. HUTCHISON, G. DIVELY, HUTCHISON,  G. DIVELY, C. WELTY, AND A. N. SPARKS. (2013). \u003C\/span\u003EMulti-State Trials of Bt Sweet Corn Varieties for Control of the Corn Earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).\u003C\/li\u003E\n\t\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"semibold\"\u003EMannion A.M. and Morse S. (2012).\u003C\/span\u003E \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/ppg.sagepub.com\/content\/early\/2012\/08\/21\/0309133312457109\"\u003EBiotechnology in agriculture Agronomic and environmental considerations and reflections based on 15 years of GM crops.\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/li\u003E\n\t\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"semibold\"\u003EGreen J.M. (2012).\u003C\/span\u003E \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov\/pubmed\/22865693\" target=\"_blank\"\u003EThe benefits of herbicide-resistant crops.\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/li\u003E\n\t\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"semibold\"\u003EFernandez-Cornejo J, Hallahan, C., Nehring, R., Wechsler, S., & Grube, A. (2012).\u003C\/span\u003E \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/www.agbioforum.org\/v15n3\/v15n3a01-fernandez-cornejo.pdf\" target=\"_blank\"\u003EConservation tillage, herbicide use, and genetically engineered crops in the United States: The case of soybeans.\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/li\u003E\n\t\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"semibold\"\u003EFinger R, El Benni N, Kaphengst T, Evans C, Herbert S, et al. (2011).\u003C\/span\u003E \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/www.mdpi.com\/2071-1050\/3\/5\/743\" target=\"_blank\"\u003EA Meta Analysis on Farm-Level Costs and Benefits of GM Crops.\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/li\u003E\n\t\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"semibold\"\u003ECarpenter JE. (2011).\u003C\/span\u003E \u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/www.landesbioscience.com\/journals\/gmcrops\/CarpenterGMC2-1.pdf\" target=\"_blank\"\u003EImpact of GM crops on biodiversity.\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/li\u003E\n\t\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"semibold\"\u003ECeleres Ambiental. (2011).\u003C\/span\u003E \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/www.celeres.com.br\/1\/english\/RelBiotechBenefits2010_Ambiental_vf1_Eng.pdf\" target=\"_blank\"\u003EThe Social-Environmental Benefits from Crop Biotechnology in Brazil: 1996-2010.\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/li\u003E\n\t\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"semibold\"\u003EFernandez-Cornejo, Jorge,  Hallahan, Charles B., Nehring, Richard F., Wechsler, Seth James, Grube, Arthur. (2010).\u003C\/span\u003E \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/ageconsearch.umn.edu\/handle\/60941\" target=\"_blank\"\u003EConservation Tillage, Pesticide Use, and GM crops in the U.S.A.\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/li\u003E\n\t\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"semibold\"\u003EQaim, Matin. (2009).\u003C\/span\u003E \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/www.annualreviews.org\/doi\/abs\/10.1146\/annurev.resource.050708.144203\" target=\"_blank\"\u003EThe Economics of Genetically Modified Crops.\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/li\u003E\n\t\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"semibold\"\u003ECerdeira AL, Duke SO. (2007).\u003C\/span\u003E \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/www.cabi.org\/cabreviews\/FullTextPDF\/2007\/20073199982.pdf\" target=\"_blank\"\u003EEnvironmental impacts of transgenic herbicide-resistant crops.\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/li\u003E\n\u003C\/ul\u003E\n"},{"title":"Regulation of GM Crops","content":"\u003Cul\u003E\n\t\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"semibold\"\u003EVIGANI M., RAIMONDI V. and OLPER A. (2012).\u003C\/span\u003E \u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/www.cambridge.org\/core\/journals\/world-trade-review\/article\/international-trade-and-endogenous-standards-the-case-of-gmo-regulations\/54DD56A233183CC89C3E7A56FBA6A9EE\" target=\"_blank\"\u003EInternational trade and endogenous standards: the case of GMO regulations.\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/li\u003E\n\t\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"semibold\"\u003EVigani M. and Olper A. (2012).\u003C\/span\u003E \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/papers.ssrn.com\/sol3\/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2063736\" target=\"_blank\"\u003EGMO Standards, Endogenous Policy and the Market for Information.\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/li\u003E\n\t\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"semibold\"\u003EMoises Burachik. (2012).\u003C\/span\u003E \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/www.landesbioscience.com\/journals\/gmcrops\/2011GMC0034R.pdf\" target=\"_blank\"\u003ERegulation of GM crops in Argentina.\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/li\u003E\n\t\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"semibold\"\u003EChris A. Wozniak , Annabel Fellman Waggoner , and Sheryl Reilly. (2012).\u003C\/span\u003E \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/rd.springer.com\/book\/10.1007\/978-94-007-2156-2\/page\/1\" target=\"_blank\"\u003ERegulation of Agricultural Biotechnology: The United States and Canada.\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/li\u003E\n\t\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"semibold\"\u003EAlan McHughen, Stuart J. Smyth. (2012).\u003C\/span\u003E \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/rd.springer.com\/chapter\/10.1007\/978-94-007-2156-2_3\" target=\"_blank\"\u003ERegulation of Genetically Modified Crops in USA and Canada: American Overview.\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/li\u003E\n\t\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"semibold\"\u003EKalaitzandonakes N. (2011).\u003C\/span\u003E \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/www.agritrade.org\/Publications\/documents\/LLPOverview.pdf\" target=\"_blank\"\u003EThe Economic Impacts of Asynchronous Authorizations and Low Level Presence: An Overview.\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/li\u003E\n\t\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"semibold\"\u003EHuang J. and Yang J. (2011).\u003C\/span\u003E \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/www.agritrade.org\/Publications\/documents\/LLPChina.pdf\" target=\"_blank\"\u003EChina\u2019s Agricultural Biotechnology Regulations\u2014Considerations.\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/li\u003E\n\t\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"semibold\"\u003EKalaitzandonakes N., Kaufman J. and Miller D. (2011).\u003C\/span\u003E \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/www.agritrade.org\/Publications\/documents\/LLPLAC.pdf\" target=\"_blank\"\u003EPotential Economic Impacts of Asynchronous Approvals of GM crops on Latin American Countries.\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/li\u003E\n\t\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"semibold\"\u003EMcDougall, P. (2011).\u003C\/span\u003E \u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/croplife.org\/wp-content\/uploads\/2014\/04\/Getting-a-Biotech-Crop-to-Market-Phillips-McDougall-Study.pdf\" target=\"_blank\"\u003EThe cost and time involved in the discovery, development and authorisation of a new plant biotechnology derived trait.\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/li\u003E\n\t\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"semibold\"\u003ETim Durham, John Doucet, Lori Unruh Snyder. (2011).\u003C\/span\u003E \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/agbioforum.org\/v14n2\/v14n2a03-durham.htm\" target=\"_blank\"\u003ERisk of Regulation or Regulation of Risk? A De Minimus Framework for Genetically Modified Crops.\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/li\u003E\n\t\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"semibold\"\u003EEuropean Food Safety Authority (EFSA). (2010).\u003C\/span\u003E \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/www.efsa.europa.eu\/en\/efsajournal\/pub\/1879.htm\" target=\"_blank\"\u003EGuidance on the environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants.\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/li\u003E\n\t\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"semibold\"\u003EE.E. McGinnis, M.H. Meyer and A.G.Smith. (2010).\u003C\/span\u003E \u003Ca href=\"https:\/\/www.crops.org\/publications\/cs\/articles\/52\/3\/991\" target=\"_blank\"\u003EAnalysis of U.S. Genetically Engineered Crop Regulation and Litigation.\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/li\u003E\n\t\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"semibold\"\u003EAustralian Government Department of Health and Ageing Office of the Gene Technology Regulator (OGTR). (2009).\u003C\/span\u003E \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/www.ogtr.gov.au\/internet\/ogtr\/publishing.nsf\/content\/raf-3\/$FILE\/raffinal4.pdf\" target=\"_blank\"\u003ERisk analysis framework, April 2009.\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/li\u003E\n\t\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"semibold\"\u003EM. Rosso-Grossman. (2009).\u003C\/span\u003E \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/www.researchgate.net\/publication\/40719762_Protecting_health_environment_and_agriculture_authorisation_of_genetically_modified_crops_and_food_in_the_United_States_and_the_European_Union\" target=\"_blank\"\u003EProtecting health, environment and agriculture: authorisation of genetically modified crops and food in the United States and the European Union.\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/li\u003E\n\t\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"semibold\"\u003EClaudia Paolettia, Eric Flammb, William Yanc, Sue Meekd, Suzy Renckensa, Marc Fellouse, Harry Kuiperf. (2008).\u003C\/span\u003E \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/www.sciencedirect.com\/science\/article\/pii\/S0924224408002239\" target=\"_blank\"\u003EGMO risk assessment around the world: Some examples. \u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/li\u003E\n\t\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"semibold\"\u003EKalaitzandonakes, N., J.M. Alston, and K.J. Bradford. (2007).\u003C\/span\u003E \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/www.nature.com\/nbt\/journal\/v25\/n5\/full\/nbt0507-509.html\" target=\"_blank\"\u003ECompliance costs for regulatory approval of new GM crops.\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/li\u003E\n\t\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"semibold\"\u003EBruce Chassy. (2002).\u003C\/span\u003E \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov\/pubmed\/12071300\" target=\"_blank\"\u003EFood Safety Evaluation of Crops Produced through Biotechnology.\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/li\u003E\n\t\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"semibold\"\u003EEnvironmental Protection Agency (EPA). (1988).\u003C\/span\u003E Guidance for the reregistration of pesticide products containing Bacillus thuringiensis as the active ingredient.\u003C\/li\u003E\n\t\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"semibold\"\u003ELaw Library of Congress.\u003C\/span\u003E \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/www.loc.gov\/law\/help\/restrictions-on-gmos\/index.php\" target=\"_blank\"\u003ERestrictions on Genetically Modified Organisms.\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/li\u003E\n\u003C\/ul\u003E\n"},{"title":"Food and Feed Safety of GM Crops","content":"\u003Cul\u003E\n\t\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"semibold\"\u003ENational Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2016).\u003C\/span\u003E \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/nas-sites.org\/ge-crops\/2016\/05\/17\/report\/\" target=\"_blank\"\u003EGenetically Engineered Crops: Experiences and Prospects.\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/li\u003E\n\u003C\/ul\u003E\n\n\u003Cul\u003E\n\t\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"semibold\"\u003EAlison L Van Eenennaam, A.E. Young. (2014).\u003C\/span\u003E \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/www.journalofanimalscience.org\/content\/early\/2014\/08\/27\/jas.2014-8124\" target=\"_blank\"\u003EPrevalence and impacts of genetically engineered feedstuffs on livestock populations.\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/li\u003E\n\u003C\/ul\u003E\n\n\u003Cul\u003E\n\t\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"semibold\"\u003EAlison L Van Eenennaam. (2013).\u003C\/span\u003E \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov\/m\/pubmed\/24066781\/\"\u003EGMOs in animal agriculture: time to consider both costs and benefits in regulatory evaluations.\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/li\u003E\n\u003C\/ul\u003E\n\n\u003Cul\u003E\n\t\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"semibold\"\u003EAgnes Ricroch. (2013).\u003C\/span\u003E \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/www.sciencedirect.com\/science\/article\/pii\/S1871678412008801\" target=\"_blank\"\u003EAssessment of GE food safety using \u2018-omics\u2019 techniques and long-term animal feeding studies.\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/li\u003E\n\u003C\/ul\u003E\n\n\u003Cul\u003E\n\t\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"semibold\"\u003EHenry-York Steiner, Claire Halpin, Joseph M. Jez, John Kough, Wayne Parrott, Lynne Underhill, Natalie Weber, and L. Curtis Hannah. International Life Science Institute (ILSI). (2013).\u003C\/span\u003E \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/www.plantphysiol.org\/content\/161\/4\/1587.full\" target=\"_blank\"\u003EEvaluating the Potential for Adverse Interactions within Genetically Engineered Breeding Stacks.\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/li\u003E\n\u003C\/ul\u003E\n\n\u003Cul\u003E\n\t\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"semibold\"\u003ENatalie Weber, Claire Halpin, L. Curtis Hannah, Joseph M. Jez, John Kough, and Wayne Parrott. (2012).\u003C\/span\u003E \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/www.plantphysiol.org\/content\/160\/4\/1842.short\" target=\"_blank\"\u003ECrop Genome Plasticity and Its Relevance to Food and Feed Safety of Genetically Engineered Breeding Stacks.\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/li\u003E\n\u003C\/ul\u003E\n\n\u003Cul\u003E\n\t\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"semibold\"\u003ESnell C, Bernheim A, Berge JB, Kuntz M, Pascal G, et al. (2012).\u003C\/span\u003E \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/www.sciencedirect.com\/science\/article\/pii\/S0278691511006399\" target=\"_blank\"\u003EAssessment of the health impact of GM plant diets in long-term and multigenerational animal feeding trials: A literature review.\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/li\u003E\n\u003C\/ul\u003E\n\n\u003Cul\u003E\n\t\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"semibold\"\u003ERizzi, A., N. Raddadi, C. Sorlini, L. Nordgrd, K.M. Nielsen and D. Daffonchio. (2012).\u003C\/span\u003E \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/www.tandfonline.com\/doi\/pdf\/10.1080\/10408398.2010.499480\" target=\"_blank\"\u003EThe stability and degradation of dietary DNA in the gastrointestinal tract of mammals: implications for horizontal gene transfer and the biosafety of GMOs.\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/li\u003E\n\u003C\/ul\u003E\n\n\u003Cul\u003E\n\t\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"semibold\"\u003EEuropean Commission - Directorate-General for Research and Innovation. (2010).\u003C\/span\u003E \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/ec.europa.eu\/research\/biosociety\/pdf\/a_decade_of_eu-funded_gmo_research.pdf\" target=\"_blank\"\u003EA decade of EU-funded GMO research (2001-2010).\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/li\u003E\n\u003C\/ul\u003E\n\n\u003Cul\u003E\n\t\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"semibold\"\u003EBruce M. Chassy. (2010).\u003C\/span\u003E \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/www.sciencedirect.com\/science\/article\/pii\/S0273230010000899\" target=\"_blank\"\u003ECan omics inform a food safety assessment?\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/li\u003E\n\u003C\/ul\u003E\n\n\u003Cul\u003E\n\t\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"semibold\"\u003ECAST. (2006).\u003C\/span\u003E \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/www.cast-science.org\/download.cfm?PublicationID=2910&File=1e30ecea828a9b1ea77c6773b63647251564TR\" target=\"_blank\"\u003ESafety of meat, milk, and eggs from animals fed crops derived from modern biotechnology.\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/li\u003E\n\u003C\/ul\u003E\n\n\u003Cul\u003E\n\t\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"semibold\"\u003ENational Academy of Science(NAS). (2004).\u003C\/span\u003E \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/www.nap.edu\/openbook.php?isbn=0309092094\" target=\"_blank\"\u003ESafety of genetically engineered foods.\u003C\/a\u003E \u003C\/li\u003E\n\u003C\/ul\u003E\n\n\u003Cul\u003E\n\t\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"semibold\"\u003EPrepared by a Task Force of the ILSI International Food Biotechnology Committee. (2004).\u003C\/span\u003E \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/www.ilsi.org\/FoodBioTech\/Publications\/02_Nutritional _Safety Assessment of GM Foods_2004.pdf\" target=\"_blank\"\u003ENutritional and Safety Assessments of Foods and Feeds Nutritionally Improved through Biotechnology.\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/li\u003E\n\u003C\/ul\u003E\n"},{"title":"Environmental Safety of GM Crops","content":"\u003Cul\u003E\n\t\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"semibold\"\u003ENational Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2016).\u003C\/span\u003E \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/nas-sites.org\/ge-crops\/2016\/05\/17\/report\/\" target=\"_blank\"\u003EGenetically Engineered Crops: Experiences and Prospects.\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/li\u003E\n\t\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"semibold\"\u003EGarcia-Alonso M, Raybould A. (2013).\u003C\/span\u003E \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov\/pubmed\/24154954\" target=\"_blank\"\u003EProtection goals in environmental risk assessment: a practical approach.\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/li\u003E\n\t\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"semibold\"\u003EHenry-York Steiner. (2013).\u003C\/span\u003E \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/www.plantphysiol.org\/content\/161\/4\/1587.full\" target=\"_blank\"\u003EEditor\u2019s Choice: Evaluating the Potential for Adverse Interactions within Genetically Engineered Breeding Stacks.\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/li\u003E\n\t\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"semibold\"\u003EJorg Romeisa, Alan Raybould, Franz Biglera, Marco P. Candolfic, Richard L. Hellmichd, Joseph E. Huesinge, Anthony M. Sheltonf. (2013).\u003C\/span\u003E \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/www.sciencedirect.com\/science\/article\/pii\/S0045653512011757\" target=\"_blank\"\u003EDeriving criteria to select arthropod species for laboratory tests to assess the ecological risks from cultivating arthropod-resistant genetically engineered crops.\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/li\u003E\n\t\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"semibold\"\u003EPeggy G. Lemaux. (2012).\u003C\/span\u003E \u003Ca href=\"http:\/\/www.annualreviews.org\/eprint\/ESHx4FnZadAJZqvIsGRg\/full\/10.1146\/annurev.arplant.043008.092013\" target=\"_blank\"\u003EGenetically Engineered Plants and Foods: A Scientist\u2019s Analysis of the Issues (Part II).\u003C\/a\u003E\u003C\/li\u003E\n\t\u003Cli\u003E\u003Cspan class=\"semibold\"\u003ECanadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA). 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